Besides, such actions may result in the failing grade for the entire project. American Psychological Association has offered its own paper format to make a difference between students who study humanities and those who study precise sciences, technological disciplines, and business.
However, APA format has become popular in many fields, including publishing. We will recall some examples of APA style formatting in this article, but you can view full samples at the academic service site. Here are the basic principles of the writing format proposed by the American Psychological Association. Mind that every page has to be formatted in the same way.
A research paper or essay should be typed, double-spaced on the standard-sized page. It means 8. A clear font like Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt. The only black color of the text is allowed. Bold or italic are used only for headings and titles in the text. You should make 1-inch margins on the bottom, top, and sides.
How to Write an Essay in APA Format
A running head with the full title of the essay must appear on the title page. Insert page numbers flush rights to complete the mission. If the full name of your paper is too long, make it shorter for the header no more than 50 characters. Using of punctuation marks has its peculiarities.
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You have to apply one space after the majority of punctuation marks unless punctuation marks are located at the end of the sentence. In this case, apply two spaces afterward. This style has five levels of heading. Each level has its purpose and size. Each paragraph of the writing piece should start with an indented first word. On this page, you should write your references.
Now we want to provide more details about each element of the APA style paper and examples of these elements. Starting from the first point, here is an example of how an APA style title page should look like:. Depending on your information and publication initiatives, develop an eye-catching title.
If we speak about a research paper, it should be concise and clear, not necessarily an interesting one. The title of your paper has to reflect the main topic idea without any abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Running head of a title must be a shortened version of the main title. An abstract should not contain any in-text citations.
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It is a separate part with a summary of the essay. E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities e. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets. If available, provide the URL where the message is archived e.
Include the title of the message and the URL. For all podcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc. Note : If a movie or video tape is not available in wide distribution, add the following to your citation after the country of origin: Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code.
For more about citing audiovisual media, see pages of the APA Publication Manual 6th Edition, second printing. Here are some print resources for using APA style. Click The Purdue OWL does not make any profit from nor does it endorse these agencies; links are merely offered for information. Most of these books are probably available in your local library. From the American Psychological Association:.
There are two common types of papers written in fields using APA Style: the literature review and the experimental report. Each has unique requirements concerning the sections that must be included in the paper.
Essay Basics: Format a Paper in APA Style
A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says about your specific topic or question. Often student research in APA fields falls into this category. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct. Some instructors may also want you to write an abstract for a literature review, so be sure to check with them when given an assignment. Also, the length of a literature review and the required number of sources will vary based on course and instructor preferences.
In many of the social sciences, you will be asked to design and conduct your own experimental research. If so, you will need to write up your paper using a structure that is more complex than that used for just a literature review. This structure follows the scientific method, but it also makes your paper easier to follow by providing those familiar cues that help your reader efficiently scan your information for:. Make sure to check the guidelines for your assignment or any guidelines that have been given to you by an editor of a journal before you submit a manuscript containing the sections listed above.
As with the literature review, the length of this report may vary by course or by journal, but most often it will be determined by the scope of the research conducted. When submitting a manuscript to a journal, make sure you follow the guidelines described in the submission policies of that publication, and include as many sections as you think are applicable to presenting your material.
Remember to keep your audience in mind as you are making this decision. If certain information is particularly pertinent for conveying your research, then ensure that there is a section of your paper that adequately addresses that information. Researchers who use APA often work with a variety of populations, some of whom tend to be stereotyped by the use of labels and other biased forms of language.
Therefore, APA offers specific recommendations for eliminating bias in language concerning race, disability, and sexuality. Although you should avoid labeling whenever possible, it is sometimes difficult to accurately account for the identity of your research population or individual participants without using language that can be read as biased. Making adjustments in how you use identifiers and other linguistic categories can improve the clarity of your writing and minimize the likelihood of offending your readers. In general, you should call people what they prefer to be called, especially when dealing with race and ethnicity.
But sometimes the common conventions of language inadvertently contain biases towards certain populations — e. You can find an in-depth discussion of this issue and specific recommendations for how to appropriately represent people in your text on the APA website on the following pages:. To avoid unintentional biases in your language, look to the parameters of your research itself. When writing up an experimental report, describe your participants by the measures you used to classify them in the experiment, as long as the labels are not offensive. Also, use adjectives to serve as descriptors rather than labels.
One way to avoid this is to insert an adjective e. Another way is to mention the person first and follow this with a descriptive phrase e. Writing in APA is more than simply learning the formula for citations or following a certain page layout. APA also includes the stylistics of your writing, from point of view to word choice. Use first person to discuss research steps rather than anthropomorphising the work.
This is inaccurate. The active voice is particularly important in experimental reports, where the subject performing the action should be clearly identified e. Clarity and conciseness in writing are important when conveying research in APA Style. For clarity, be specific rather than vague in descriptions and explanations.
Style Guidelines by Topic
Unpack details accurately to provide adequate information to your readers so they can follow the development of your study. The second hypothesis stated that the effect would be stronger for girls than for boys. The third hypothesis stated that older girls would be more affected by marital conflict than younger girls. Balancing the need for clarity, which can require unpacking information, and the need for conciseness, which requires condensing information, is a challenge.
Study published articles and reports in your field for examples of how to achieve this balance. You should even be careful in selecting certain words or terms. Within the social sciences, commonly used words take on different meanings and can have a significant effect on how your readers interpret your reported findings or claims. To increase clarity, avoid bias, and control how your readers will receive your information, you should make certain substitutions:.
As with the other stylistic suggestions here, you should study the discourse of your field to see what terminology is most often used. Writing papers in APA Style is unlike writing in more creative or literary styles that draw on poetic expressions and figurative language.
Such linguistic devices can detract from conveying your information clearly and may come across to readers as forced when it is inappropriately used to explain an issue or your findings.
APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1. The format of each level is illustrated below:. Section headings receive level one format. Subsections receive level two format.